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怎样区分短语动词和介词动词

怎样区分短语动词和介词动词
分类:英语 2017-11-16 共 2 个回复
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短语动词
Ø 由一个单词构成的动词叫做“单词动词”,如live,work,study,come,go等.
Ø 短语动词是以实义动词加上介词或副词等构成的多词动词.
Ø 它们所表示的意义通常不是动词和介词/副词各自词义的简单相加.
Ø 在使用时,我们要将短语动词作为一个整体看待.
Ø 短语动词可分为及物和不及物两种类型.
Ø 对短语动词的考查主要是考查其意义,所以识记和领会短语动词的意义是学习短语动词的关键.
Ø 短语动词主要分为以下几种:
一、“动词+介词”构成的短语动词
这类短语动词相当于及物动词,后面须跟宾语.常见的这类短语动词有:
account for(解释) add to(增添) arrive at(到达)
ask for(请求) break into(闯入) call on(拜访)
come from(出生于;来自) consist of(由……组成) deal with(对付,应付)
depend on( 1g 靠) fill in(填写) get over(克服)
go over(g~查,复习) hear from(收到……的来信) hear of/about(听说)
laugh at(嘲笑) lead to(导致) listen to(听)
look after(照料) look for(寻找) look into(调查)
look on(认为) look through(仔细看) send for(派人去请)
stick to(坚持) talk about(谈论) wait for(等待)
wait on(侍候)
请看几个例句:
He could not account for his absence from school.
I called on her this morning.
Everyone laughed at the woman’s mistake.
She is looking after her sick mother.

二、“动词+副词”构成的短语动词
这类短语动词分为两类:及物动词+副词和不及物动词+副词.
1. 及物动词+副词
Ø 它相当于一个及物动词.
Ø 副词的位置由所接的宾语决定.如果宾语是名词,副词既可以在宾语之前,也可在宾语之后;如果宾语是代词,代词只能放在动词与副词之间.
Ø 常见的这类短语动词有:
bring up(抚养) call off(取消) carry out(执行)
find out(查明) give away(暴露) give off(发出)
give up(放弃) hand in(上交) hand out(分发)
hand over(移交) look up(查找) make out(认出)
pick up(拣起) point out(指出) put away(把…收起来)
put off(推迟) put on(穿上;上演) ring up(给…打电话)
see off(给…送行) send out(发出) set up(建立)
take off(脱掉) take over(接过) think over(考虑)
turn down(拒绝) turn off(关掉) turn on(接通)
wipe out(消灭) work out(做出)
请看几个例句:
You must hand in your exercises this afternoon.
She gave up many of her holidays to help US in our work.
I’11 give you five minutes to work out this problem.
2. 不及物动词+副词
Ø 它相当于一个不及物动词,后面不能跟宾语.
Ø 常见的这类短语动词有:
break down(出故障;坏掉) break out(爆发) break in(打断)
come back(回来;想起来) come on(快来;进展) come out(出版;出来)
come to(苏醒) die away(渐渐消失) die out(灭绝)
drop out(退出) get away(逃走) get down(下来;下车)
get in(进入) get through(通过;打通电话) get together(相聚)
get up(起床) give in(让步) go by(过去;经过)
go on(继续) go out(熄灭) go up(提高)
hold on(别挂电话) look out(小心) ring off(挂断电话)
set off/out(出发) stand up(起立) stay up(熬夜)
turn up(出席) work out(想出;制订出;结果良好)
请看几个例句:
The war broke out in 1937.
These animals have already died out.
After just a few minutes she suddenly came to·

三、“动词+副词+介词”构成的短语动词
这类短语动词相当于一个及物动词,后面须跟宾语.常见的这类短语动词有:
break away from(脱离) catch up with(赶上)
come down with(患病) come up to(达到)
do away with(抛弃) get along with(与…相处)
get out of(摆脱) get through with(完成)
go on with(继续) look down upon(瞧不起)
look forward to(盼望) look up to(尊敬)
make up of(由…组成) make up for(补偿)
put up with(忍受)
请看几个例句:
I couldn’t put up with the noise any longer.
The children are looking forward to the holiday.
How are they getting along with their work?
Go on and I'll catch up with you in five minutes.

四、“动词+名词+介词”构成的短语动词
这类短语动词中,动词后作宾语的名词是固定的,而介词后的名词却可以根据具体情况选用.常见的这类短语动词有:
catch sight of(看见;发现) find fault with(挑剔)
get hold of(得到) lose sight of(看不见)
make a fool of(愚弄) make fun of(取笑)
make use of(利用) pay attention to(注意)
play a part in(在…中起) take care of(照顾)
take notice of(注意) take part in(参加)
take pride in(以…自豪)
请看几个例句:
I’ll take care of your children when you are away.
You should pay attention to your pronunciation.
She thought they were making fun of her.

五、“动词(+宾语)+介词+名词”构成的短语动词
这类短语动词和上面所讲的“动词+名词+介词”结构不同.这类短语动词中“介词+名词”是固定搭配,其中的名词不可随意更换.常见的这类短语动词有:
bear sth. in mind (记住某事)
come to a conclusion/decision(得出结论/做出决定)
come to light(显露出来)
come into existence/being(开始存在;形成)
come into effect/use(生效;开始使用)
come into view/sight(出现;映入眼帘)
come into office/power(就职;上台执政)
keep in touch(保持联系)
put sth.into practice(将某事付诸实施)
take sth.into account j consideration(考虑某事)
请看几个例句:
No one knows when such a custom first came into existence.
(没有人知道这种风俗是什么时候开始的.)
When did their new president come into office?
(他们的新总统什么时候就职的?)
We should always bear in mind these lessons.

六、“be+形容词+介词”构成的短语动词
这样的短语动词有:
be afraid of(害怕) be fond of(爱好)
be familiar with(熟悉) be good at(善于)
be interested in(对…感兴趣) be late for(迟到)
be suitable for(对…合适) be surprised at(对…感到惊奇)
请看几个例句:
Many people are afraid of snakes.
He is interested in English grammar
He is good at playing ping-pong.

七、“动词+各词”构成的短语动词
英语中有些名词与动词构成固定搭配,表达特定的意思.这些名词貌似宾语,但它们不能转化为被动句的主语.常见的这种固定搭配有:
change color(变脸色) change hands(易手)
lose heart(丧失信心) make friends(交朋友)
make money(赚钱) make sense(有意义)
take action(采取行动) take place(发生)
take root(生根) take one’s time(从容进行)


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